The Sonic Tomograph works on the fact that solid wood is a better sound wave conductor than wood damaged by decay. Adopting this principle, it uses a series of sonic sensors, which can detect sound waves that are induced and propagated through the wood.
Sonic sensors are placed around the tree. Each sensor is connected to a nail, which is tapped into contact with the wood by a pin hammer at each inspection point. A small tap on the nails sends sound waves, which are received and measured by the other sensors, resulting in a tomogram.
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Examples of 2D and 3D decay patterns